(Indian Express It has a new series of essays for UPSC aspirants written by experienced writers and expert scholars on issues and concepts spanning history, politics, international relations, art, culture and heritage, environment, geography, science and technology etc. has started Read and brainstorm with subject experts and boost your chances of topping UPSC CSE a lot. In the following article, Amit Kumar, a doctoral candidate at IIT Delhi, extols artificial intelligence and its healthcare benefits.)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines, especially computers, to perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. These tasks include understanding language, recognizing patterns, solving problems, and making decisions.

Essentially, AI enables machines to think and learn from experience, just as humans do, but often at much faster speeds with access to vast amounts of data.

Advances in computational power and big data accelerated AI capabilities in image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and autonomous systems. Today, AI is constantly evolving, integrating into various industries, creating innovation, and changing everyday life.

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Types and subsets.

AI can be classified into two categories: artificial narrow intelligence (ANI) also known as weak AI and artificial general intelligence.AGI) is also called strong AI.

ANI is designed for specific tasks and excels in a narrow domain. Examples include virtual assistants like Siri, recommendation systems on platforms like Netflix, and image recognition software. ANI systems are highly specialized and cannot transfer their expertise to unrelated tasks.


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In contrast, AGI aims to mimic human cognitive abilities, enabling it to perform any intellectual task that a human can perform. AGI will possess general reasoning skills, understand context, and adapt to new situations in different domains. It will be capable of autonomous learning and problem solving without the need for task-specific programming.

Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) are subsets of AI but differ in complexity and capabilities. ML involves training algorithms to learn from data and make predictions and often requires manual feature extraction.

DL, a subset of ML, uses neural networks with many layers (hence “deep”) up to Automatically learn features from large datasets. While ML works well with small datasets, DL requires a lot of data and computational power.

AI in Healthcare

There is AI. A revolution in health care By enhancing prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management for both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases (CDs).

In the realm of NCDs, AI algorithms excel in early detection and diagnosis by analyzing medical images and patient data. CancerHeart diseases, and diabetes often occur before symptoms appear.

Personalized treatment plans are another major benefit, with AI systems tailoring drug dosages and treatments to individual patients, thereby improving the management of chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and asthma.

Additionally, AI-powered wearable devices and mobile apps enable continuous monitoring of health metrics in real time, providing alerts and actionable insights that help manage chronic diseases more effectively and prevent complications. help

Predictive analytics is also a key application, as AI models can predict disease progression and patient outcomes, allowing for proactive interventions and better allocation of resources.

In the context of CDs, AI plays an important role in outbreak prediction and monitoring by performing diverse analyses. Data Tools such as social media and travel patterns to predict and monitor disease outbreaks facilitate timely public health responses.

Benefits

Rapid diagnosis is significantly enhanced by AI, which can quickly and accurately identify pathogens in blood samples or through imaging, improving the speed and accuracy of infectious disease detection. Is.

AI also accelerates drug discovery by predicting effective compounds. against specific pathogens, thereby shortening the development cycle for new antibiotics and antivirals.

Additionally, AI supports telemedicine and remote monitoring, allowing healthcare providers to manage patients remotely, during pandemics and with limited access to healthcare. Especially important in regions.

Overall, the integration of AI into healthcare systems not only increases efficiency and reduces costs, but also significantly improves patient outcomes, making the global healthcare system more efficient. Helps to build strength and accountability.

AI powered solutions

Disease diagnosis and prognosis: AI algorithms can analyze medical images, such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans, with high accuracy, helping to detect diseases like cancer and tuberculosis early. For example, AI systems have shown proficiency in identifying lung nodules, breast cancer, and diabetic retinopathy.

Drug discovery and development: AI revolutionizes drug discovery and development by rapidly identifying potential drugs and predicting their effects. AI models analyze vast data sets to uncover patterns and relationships, accelerating target identification and lead optimization.

AI-powered simulations predict how drugs interact with biological systems, reducing the need for extensive laboratory experiments. In clinical trials, AI Improves trial design, patient selection, and data analysis, increasing efficiency and success rates.

By streamlining these processes, AI significantly reduces the time and cost of bringing new drugs to market, ultimately improving the availability of effective treatments for various diseases.

Predictive analytics and risk assessment: AI models identify patterns and predict disease outbreaks, patient deterioration and hospital readmissions. AI-powered tools assess a patient’s individual risk, enabling early interventions and personalized care plans.

By continuously monitoring health data from electronic health records (EHRs) and wearable devices, AI provides real-time insights and alerts healthcare providers to critical changes.

Health Medicine: AI revolutionizes precision medicine by treating individual patients based on their unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

AI algorithms analyze vast datasets, including genomic sequences, medical histories, and real-time health data. of a personal nature treatment plan. This It helps predict how patients will respond to specific treatments, optimizing drug selection and dosing.

This approach increases the effectiveness of treatment, reduces adverse effects, and promotes preventive care.

Health monitoring and wearables: AI is transforming health wearables from trackers to active health partners. By analyzing data from sensors, AI can detect patterns and identify health problems such as heart problems or Lack of sleep. This allows for early intervention and better chronic disease management.

AI wearables can also monitor the elderly and remotely alert caregivers of falls or other emergencies.

Robotics and Automation: AI is the brain power behind modern robotics. It equips robots with AI models so they can learn from experience and adapt to new situations. This enables robots to handle complex tasks, optimizing them. Accuracy over time, and make decisions based on sensor data.

Imagine factory robots that can adjust their grip based on the shape of an object or surgical robots performing delicate procedures. AI and robotics are revolutionizing automation in industries.

Traditional Medicine: AYUSH GRID (Ministry of AYUSH) aims to improve the AYUSH sector using AI to deliver efficient, complete, affordable and high quality services to everyone through a secure and connected network. digital system.

Read the post question

Explain the concept of artificial intelligence (AI).

How does Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) differ from Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)? Discuss with examples.

Discuss the ways in which artificial intelligence is revolutionizing healthcare in India.

Artificial intelligence has the potential to democratize access to quality healthcare in India. Comment

(Amit Kumar is a PhD candidate at IIT Delhi. I In the second part of the article, the author will discuss the progress made by India. AI-powered healthcare solutions and challenges.)

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